ارزیابی رضایتمندی آکوستیکی در ایستگاه‌های مترو از منظر عینی و ذهنی (مطالعۀ موردی: مترو تهران و تبریز)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی (کاربردی)

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه معماری، واحد نجف‌آباد، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، نجف‌آباد ، ایران.

2 استاد مدعو، گروه معماری، واحد نجف‌آباد، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، نجف‌آباد، ایران.

3 دانشیار، دانشکده مهندسی معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه هنر اسلامی، تبریز، ایران.

4 استادیار، گروه شهرسازی، واحد نجف‌آباد، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، نجف‌آباد، ایران.

5 استادیار، گروه معماری، واحد نجف‌آباد، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، نجف‌آباد، ایران.

10.48301/kssa.2023.361415.2281

چکیده

تأمین آسایش صوتی و وضوح گفتار در ایستگاه­های مترو علاوه بر ایجاد ایمنی و امنیت، در بحث‌های روانی و جسمانی افراد نیز نقش دارد. در آکوستیک، ازریابی‌های عینی به تنهایی در تعیین رضایت آکوستیکی کافی نبوده و نیاز به ارزیابی ذهنی نیز وجود دارد. لذا هدف این پژوهش، سنجش رضایتمندی آکوستیکی در ایستگاه­های مترو به لحاظ کمی و کیفی با روش توصیفی-تجربی است. داده‌های مورد نیاز از طریق برداشت‌های میدانی که شامل اندازه­گیری پارامترهای فیزیکی (تراز فشار صوتی و زمان واخنش) و نیز پرسش‌نامه برای درک بهتر مخاطبان و سنجش میزان رضایتمندی آنان در رابطه با پنج مؤلفه تأثیرگذار در کیفیت آکوستیکی (شنیداری، گفتاری، انسانی، عملکردی و معماری) جمع­آوری گردیده و با دو نرم­افزار اکسل و اس.پی.اس.اس مورد تحلیل و بررسی قرار گرفته­اند. مقایسه با استانداردهای بین­المللی در حیطۀ ارزیابی فیزیکی و شناسایی متغیرهای اساسی، تعیین میزان رضایتمندی و معناداری رابطه بین مؤلفه­های تأثیرگذار در رضایت آکوستیکی با متغیرهای جمعیت‌شناسی از جمله مواردی است که پژوهش انسانی به دنبال آن است. آنالیز داده‌های جمع­آوری شده نشان می‌دهد تراز فشار صوتی و زمان واخنش از استانداردهای مربوطه تبعیت نمی­کنند و عوامل اصلی نارضایتی از منظر مخاطبان به ترتیب شامل صداهای مکانیکی، دینامیکی و انعکاس گفتار در ایستگاه‌های مترو هستند که نوفه­های قابل توجهی تولید کرده، قابلیت شنیداری فضا را کاهش داده، تأثیر بسزایی در ایمنی و امنیت دارد و نیز عملکرد سیستم‌های اطلاع­رسانی را دچار مشکل ­کند. همچنین میزان رضایتمندی کاربران ارتباط معناداری با متغیرهایی همچون جنس، سن، ساعت مراجعه، تعداد سفرها در طول روز، توانایی شنیداری هر فرد دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Assessment of Acoustic Satisfaction at Metro Stations from an Objective and Subjective Point of View (Case Study: Metro of Tehran and Tabriz)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Paria Meshkabadi 1
  • Abbas Ghaffari 2 3
  • Elham Nazemi 4
  • Narges Dehghan 5
1 PhD Student, Department of Architecture, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad, Iran.
2 Visiting Professor, Department of Architecture, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad, Iran |Associate professor, Faculty of Architecture and Urbanism, Tabriz Islamic Art University, Tabriz, Iran.
3 Visiting Professor, Department of Architecture, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad, Iran |Associate professor, Faculty of Architecture and Urbanism, Tabriz Islamic Art University, Tabriz, Iran.
4 Assistant Professor, Department of Urban Planning, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad, Iran.
5 Assistant Professor, Department of Architecture, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad, Iran.
چکیده [English]

The provision of sound comfort and speech intelligibility in metro stations also contribute to the mental and physical discussions of individuals in addition to safety and security. In acoustics, an objective evaluation alone is not sufficient to determine acoustic satisfaction and there is a need for subjective evaluation. Therefore, the purpose of this research was evaluation of acoustical satisfaction in metro stations in terms of quantity and quality with descriptive-experimental methods. The required data was collected through field studies that included measurement of physical parameters (SPL and RT) as well as questionnaires to better understand the audience and measure their satisfaction with the five effective components in acoustic quality (auditory, speech, human, functional and architecture) and analyzed in two EXCEL and SPSS software. A comparison with international standards was made in the scope of physical measurements and recognition of the underlying variables to determine the satisfaction, the relationship between the factors influencing the acoustic satisfaction with the demographic variables which research in humanities is looking for. The analysis of the collected data indicated that the SPL and RT did not follow the relevant standards. The main factors of dissatisfaction from people’s points of views included mechanical, dynamic and speech reflection in metro stations, which produce significant noise, and have a great impact on safety and security and the performance of public address systems. Furthermore, satisfaction of users had a significant correlation with variables such as gender, age, number of trips during the day, and auditory ability of each individual.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Acoustic satisfaction
  • Metro station
  • Speech intelligibility
  • Sound pressure level
  • Reverberation time
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دوره 19، شماره 4 - شماره پیاپی 60
هنر و معماری | کشاورزی
اسفند 1401
صفحه 323-347
  • تاریخ دریافت: 13 مهر 1401
  • تاریخ بازنگری: 18 آذر 1401
  • تاریخ پذیرش: 25 دی 1401
  • تاریخ اولین انتشار: 06 بهمن 1401